Centauro, the new variant of the covid that worries ( Pexel)

The year 2020 was a nightmare for many. Being locked up at home for so long left scars on our society and economy that even today, more than two years later, we are still trying to repair. Therefore, it is not surprising when panic appears before a potential new threat.

In the case of COVID-19, there have been numerous variants that have emerged since its first appearance. Beta, Delta and Omicron are some of the most striking. However, thanks to the timely appearance of vaccines and other factors, each of them has been controlled.

However, currently there have been cases of a new variant that is presumed to be much more dangerous than the previous ones: Centaur or “Centaurus”. Originally from India, where at least 20% of the cases known so far are registered, it has managed to spread to countries such as Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom at a worrying speed.



It is still early to assume that we know everything about this new variant. At the moment, there is hardly any information about its level of transmissibility or evasion, as well as the effect it may or may not have on the vaccines that the majority of the population currently has.

However, it is recommended to remain alert to the presence of:
• Strong headaches that occur continuously and for periods of acute without external explanation.
• Fever, cough and nasal congestion, as main alerts of airway blockage.
• Throat pain.
• General discomfort.



According to data provided by Soumya Swaminathan, chief scientist of the OMS, Centaur has 16 mutations noted with respect to previous variants. Two of them, G446S and R493Q, are the ones of greatest concern to the scientific community porno français, due to their potential ability to evade immunity from vaccines and previous infections.

However, this aspect is still under study and there is still not enough evidence to confirm it. This does not necessarily mean that we are safer. On the contrary. By not knowing the limits of this variant, acting on it is a gamble.



In order to keep the population safe, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) make the following recommendations:
• To start with, an additional dose of mRNA vaccine is recommended. In the first instance, this is of vital importance for people with weakened immune systems due to natural causes or compromised by external factors. According to the recommendation, it should be given at least 2 weeks after the second mRNA vaccine booster.
• Preventive health control measures.
• Priority on anti-COVID security protocols in public spaces.
• Pay attention to general health and immediately visit a health professional in case of symptoms of COVID-19.
• Immediate isolation of patients who present any symptoms.
• Follow the previously established indications in case of infection of this or any other of the variants.

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Infected with monkeypox

After going through COVID-19, our society never imagined that it would take so little time before facing the next health emergency. It turns out that it arrived much earlier than we thought, and with more than 16,000 people infected in 75 countries in less than a year.

Even when it has not been as mediatic as COVID-19, Monkeypox already registers numbers that raise alerts from the World Health Organization. As a consequence, the Director General of this organization, Adhanom Ghebreyesus, declared a little less than a month ago that the disease is already classified as a global health emergency xnxx.



With the increase in the registration of cases worldwide and the scenario worsening day by day in Brazil, it was a matter of time before government and private organizations dedicated to health considered some countermeasures. Among them, the possibility of a massive vaccine began to appear.

However, the WHO denies the need for this measure. In recent statements, Rosamund Lewis, a specialist in this disease at the UN agency, recommended post-exposure vaccination as a countermeasure. However, the project is still in the coordination process for the release and distribution of the vaccines.

Currently, the recommendation for infected patients is partial or total isolation until recovery. Likewise, it is important that these patients check their temperature and possible symptoms between 9 and 12 days after infection.



Unlike COVID-19, we are fortunate to be facing a less silent and aggressive threat. Its characteristic hives and other physical symptoms make it much easier to spot. In addition, its clinical manifestation is usually mild.

Until now, Africa registers a 3.6% mortality according to the data registered in Europe. The most affected are usually children and young adults, as well as immunosuppressed people. Outside of this group, most patients have recovered within weeks.

The biggest complications are precisely skin infections, delusions and eye infections that decrease vision. Of this group, only about 6% have deaths. Mostly children with other health problems.




Being of mild clinical manifestation, the disease does not currently have a specific protocol or a defined treatment. Symptoms often simply disappear within 9-12 days without the need for treatment, implying that the human body naturally fights the disease and overcomes it without problems.

As key recommendations are:
• Monitor body temperature.
• Treat eye infections with standard treatment.
• Take care of skin infections by letting the area dry. If necessary, it can be covered with moist bandages.
• Avoid contact with the mouth or eyes.

Always remember that, for more information, you can consult the direct sources in the information portals of the WHO and other health organizations.




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Access to Medicines: The Novartis Approach

The issue of “access to drugs” cannot be discussed in isolation from overall deficits in development policies, health policies and systems, and implementation processes. It is a complex issue that clearly includes the price of drugs but also goes far beyond that.

As a rule, the combination of appropriate development policy, effective health policy, best practices applied in the health system, a rational use of drugs, and adequately funded health services can handle most of the health problems in any country.

Although public health care saves millions of lives from premature death due to disease and injuries, several well-known problems remain:

The key role for the pharmaceutical industry is to discover, develop, produce, and market innovative products to prevent and cure diseases, to ease suffering, and to enhance the quality of life. Intellectual property rights are the lifeline of the research-based pharmaceutical industry and are vital to sustain continued R&D into new treatments.

In view of the substantial investments of time and capital to bring a drug to market, as well as the high risk of failure, the research efforts of the pharmaceutical industry are primarily focused on diseases with potential for an adequate return on investment.

New mechanisms are therefore urgently needed to foster research on diseases of poverty. A combination of market-based incentives (“push” and “pull” mechanisms to reduce the research and development costs and provide the necessary financial incentives) together with increased public funding and public private partnerships are called for.

Another option is to create a Consultative Group on International Health Research that would administer a global fund, financed by multilateral and bilateral donors as well as by NGOs, along the lines of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

The impact of patent protection on patients’ access to treatment in developing countries is often exaggerated: Although about 90% of the drugs on WHO’s model list of essential drugs are available off-patent, over a third of the world’s population still has no access to these drugs. As essential drugs for the management of HIV/AIDS and drug-resistant forms of TB are patent-protected, and therefore the exception to the rule, innovative and unorthodox solutions must be found to improve poor people’s access to these treatments.

The pharmaceutical industry is willing to work together to developing sustainable solutions. Individual companies such as Novartis will focus their efforts on improving access to treatments within their specific product portfolios.

The challenge therefore is to integrate the emerging global health system of intellectual property rights into a workable solution to make treatments available to poor people. TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) aims to strike such a balance by providing intellectual property protection and allowing countries the flexibility to ensure that treatments are available for the poor in situations of national emergencies, such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Special price arrangements that permit the adaptation of prices for individual products and countries also provide a solution as they combine incentives for research with a wider distribution of benefits. Various safeguards will have to be in place to maintain the structure of these differentiated prices, such as control over trade to prevent re-exportation to high-priced markets, undertakings not to use the low prices as reference prices in developed markets, etc.

Despite greatly reduced prices for treatment such as HIV/AIDS and malaria, given the scale of the disease burden, providing treatment for all patients will continue to be beyond the means of governments in developing countries.

Substantially expanding access to essential medicines, including anti-retrovirals, will require additional domestic and international financing for the purchase of the drugs as well as a significant investment in building effective health and supply systems. Without the infrastructure and capacity building necessary to administer the HIV/AIDS drug regimens adequately and effectively, there is not only the danger of sub-optimal therapeutic success but also the risk of resistance to anti-retrovirals.

The Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria has been established to translate the unprecedented international and political attention into real commitments that will help improve access to the information, goods and services that people so urgently need. However the financial commitment to date of US$ 3.4 billion is significantly lower than the budget of US$ 7—10 billion required to launch a global response in order to stop and reverse the HIV/AIDS pandemic alone.

Novartis is committed to helping improve patients’ access to its treatments for diseases of poverty. Novartis has signed two Memorandums of Understanding with WHO-one to provide Free Treatment For All Leprosy Patients until the disease has been eliminated from every country, and the other to provide Coartem®, its oral fixed-combination anti-malarial product, at cost.

Novartis is committed to supporting pro bono research on diseases of poverty. It has established a research center in Singapore which will focus on developing new preventive and effective treatments for tuberculosis and dengue fever. The diseases affect two billion and 50 million people respectively mainly in developing countries. The Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases is a result of an agreement between Novartis and the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) and involves an investment of US$ 122 million. The center could become closely associated with a Consultative Group on International Health Research (CGIHR) which is line with the recommendation of the WHO Commission on Macroeconomic and Health.

Novartis will donate 100,000 DOTS treatments (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course) for tuberculosis every year for a five year period as its contribution to the Global Fund The Novartis donation will be channeled through the Global TB Drug Facility and thus take advantage of existing structures and expertise in order to improve patients access to TB diagnosis and treatment. The donation will be provided to some of the poorest developing countries where it can make a significant contribution to improve the TB situation.

Since 2002 Novartis is providing prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services for its employees and immediate family members (nucleus family) for HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in developing countries. The programme is being scaled to cover all employees working in countries with insufficient health insurance.

Novartis is working out the framework of a porno italiane programme, together with other partners, which aims at improving the access of poor communities in a sub-Saharan African country to comprehensive anti-malarial services (prevention and treatment) in a sustainable manner. Other partners could be the the Ministry of Health of the respective country, Swiss Development Cooperation, WHO, the World Bank, the Swiss Tropical Institute and Non-Governmental Organizations with competence in Access to Treatment issues.

Misallocation of public resources, in the sense of spending scarce resources on health interventions of low cost-effectiveness while underfunding critical and highly cost-effective health interventions;
inequity, in the sense that government spending intended to pay for basic health services for the poorest goes disproportionately to affluent segments of society; and
inefficiency, in the sense that health systems are often poorly structured and badly led, and their potential is squandered.